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UN-Menschenrechtsrat: Staatliche Verfolgung von Atheisten in arabischer Welt kritisiert

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Der in der Schweiz lebende marokkanische Blogger und Vertreter der Internationalen Humanistischen und Ethischen Union (IHEU) Kacem El-Ghazali hat im Menschenrechtsrat der Vereinten Nationen die anhaltenden Rechtsverletzungen der arabischen Regierungen verurteilt. Schon die IHEU hatte in ihrem Bericht zur Verfolgung von Konfessionsfreien auf die Situation in Saudi-Arabien hingewiesen.
Freitag, 20. September 2013
Säkularer Winter

Was hat der Arabische Frühling gebracht? Das fragte sich die diesseits-Redaktion im Sommer und versammelte auf dieser Karte einige Fakten zur gesellschaftlichen und politischen Situation in der arabischen Welt. | © Anne Paschen

Im Zentrum von El Ghazzalis Kritik stand das saudische Königshaus. Liberalen Bloggern und Journalisten droht in dem Land, wo die Scharia Rechtsgrundlage ist, Inhaftierung, Verfolgung und sogar Todesstrafe. Die Kritik am Vorgehen der religiösen Sicherheitskräfte oder die Verteidigung von Frauenrechten wird strafrechtlich verfolgt. Dies musste etwa der liberale Blogger Raif Badawi erfahren, der aufgrund seiner staats- und religionskritischen Berichterstattung in Saudi-Arabien zu 600 Peitschenhieben und sieben Jahren Gefängnis verurteilt worden war. Badawi wird von amnesty international als politisch Gefangener behandelt.

Auch der saudische Journalist Hamsa Kaschgari wird von der Menschenrechtsorganisation als politischer Häftling geführt. Ihm droht in Saudi-Arabien wegen „Blasphemie“ die Todesstrafe, weil er drei islamkritische Tweets veröffentlich hatte (siehe Box). Nachdem er zunächst von hochrangigen saudischen Geistlichen zum Ungläubigen erklärt worden war, floh er nach Malaysia, wurde auf ein saudisches gesuch jedoch nach Saudi-Arabien ausgeliefert. Die Menschenrechtsorganisation Human Rights Watch glaubt, dass er von saudi-religiösen Autoritäten wegen Apostasie (Glaubensabfalls) bereits für schuldig erklärt worden sei und dafür vor Gericht angeklagt werde.

Die drei Tweets von Kamsa Kaschgari lauten in der Übersetzung:

  • „An deinem Geburtstag werde ich sagen, dass ich den Revolutionär in dir liebte, der mich immer inspirierte. Aber ich mag den Heiligenschein nicht. Ich bete dich nicht an.“
  • „An Deinem Geburtstag sehe ich Dich, wo auch immer ich hinschaue. Ich habe bestimmte Aspekte von Dir geliebt, andere gehasst und viele nicht verstanden.“
  • „An Deinem Geburtstag werde ich mich nicht vor Dir verbeugen und nicht Deine Hand küssen. Stattdessen werde ich sie schütteln, wie Gleichgestellte es tun. Und ich werde Dich anlächeln, wie Du mich anlächelst. Ich werde zu Dir wie zu einem Freund sprechen und nicht anders.“


Frauenrechtlerinnen werden in Saudi-Arabien ebenfalls strafrechtlich verfolgt. Im Juni dieses Jahres waren die bekannten Frauenrechtsaktivistinnen Wajeha al Huweidar und Fawzia Al-Oyouni zu einer zehnmonatigen Gefängnisstrafe verurteilt worden, weil sie angeblich eine Frau gegen ihren Mann aufgebracht haben sollen. Die beiden Aktivistinnen waren zuvor von der Kanadierin Nathalie Morin kontaktiert worden, die um Hilfe bat, weil sie und ihre Kinder von ihrem Ehemann gefangen gehalten würden. Als die Frauen dem Vorwurf nachgehen wollten, wurden sie festgenommen.

El-Ghazali verurteilte die zunehmende Verfolgung von Menschenrechtsaktivisten in den Mitgliedsstaaten der Organisation für Islamische Zusammenarbeit. So waren im März 2012 die beiden Tunesier Jabeur Mejri und Ghazi Beji zu siebeneinhalb Jahren Haft verurteilt worden, weil sie „blasphemische“ Bilder auf Facebook veröffentlicht hatten. In Kuwait war ebenfalls im März 2012 der Blogger Hamad Al-Naqi zu zehn Jahren Haft verurteilt worden, weil er auf Twitter kritische Kommentare über die sunnitischen Herrscher Bahrains und Saudi-Arabiens sowie über die Frau des Propheten Mohammed gemacht hatte. In Bahrain wurde im August 2012 ein nicht namentlich genannter 19-jähriger Blogger zu zwei Jahren Gefängnis verurteilt, ebenfalls weil er die Frau des Propheten Mohammed auf Twitter beleidigt haben soll. In Ägypten wurde im September 2012 Alber Saber wegen Diffamierung des Islams zu sechs Jahren Haft verurteilt, weil er die Facebook-Seite „Egyptian Atheist“ ins Leben gerufen und sich dort religionskritisch geäußert hatte (Eine Übersicht finden Sie auf der abgebildeten Karte, die Sie am Ende des Beitrags als pdf-Dokument herunterladen können).

Kazem El Ghazzali

Der Blogger Kazem El Ghazzali beim UN-Gipfel für Menschenrechte und Demokratie in Genf im Frühjahr 2013 | © Oliver O'Hanlon

El Ghazzali hatte sich in unserer Ausgabe „Arabische Eiszeit. Folgt auf die Protestwelle die erhoffte Sternstunde der arabischen Welt?“ im Interview zur Lage von Nicht-Gläubigen und Konfessionsfreien geäußert. Kurzfristig werde sich nichts ändern, lautete seine skeptische Einschätzung: „Wir sind in einer Phase der Unterdrückung von Atheisten und nicht-religiösen Menschen, weil die islamische Welt von unserer Existenz Notiz nimmt“, sagte El Ghazzali. Auf lange Sicht aber werde sich die Situation verbessern, weil „eine Modernisierung unausweichlich ist, was immer Islamisten tun.“ Zugleich forderte der Marokkaner eine bessere Vernetzung der säkularen Menschen in der arabischen Welt, „um für Säkularismus und eine Verfassung zu werben, die jede Form von Glauben respektiert.“

Der wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiter im Zentrum für demokratische Kultur in Berlin Ahmad Mansour sieht hier den Westen stärker in der Verantwortung. Die Förderung liberaler Kräfte im Land und die die Nutzung wirtschaftlicher Macht, um auf Einhaltung der Menschenrechte zu drängen, seien die wesentlichen Ansatzpunkte für die westlichen Regierungen. Solange liberale, säkulare und vor allem atheistische Menschen mit ihrem Leben spielen, wenn sie gegen die konservative islamische Strömung sprechen, „wird nie eine Bewegung entstehen“, sagte er im diesseits-Interview.

Im Juni hatte die IHEU einen Bericht veröffentlicht, in dem sie Einzelfälle zur Verfolgung von Konfessionsfreien weltweit versammelt hatte. Dabei stellte sie fest, dass bei den meisten Blasphemie-Klagen, die gegen nichtreligiöse Menschen geführt würden, Social Media wie Facebook oder Twitter eine Rolle spielen. Die arabische Welt ist demnach eine Schwerpunktregion der Verfolgung Nichtgläubiger.

Die diesseits-Redaktion hatte die Berichterstattung zur vermeintlich singulären Verfolgung Anders- oder Nicht-Gläubiger kritisch beobachtet. Die Repressionen, die in einigen Staaten und Gesellschaften existieren, betreffen all jene, deren Weltanschauung von der Staats- oder Mehrheitsreligion abweicht oder deren Lebensführung gegen die Moral der Mehrheitsreligion verstößt. Säkulare oder Christen können gleichermaßen dazugehören wie jene, die für die Rechte von Frauen, schulpflichtigen Mädchen, Homosexuellen, Anders- oder Nichtgläubigen aufstehen. „Wer abweicht, wird verfolgt. So kurz und einfach lautet die Formel.“ 

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